Filed Under Documentation

Wireguard VPN Protocol

WireGuard is one of the latest open-source communications protocols that has been designed to replace IPSec and OpenVPN by simplifying the installation and configuration process while also offering reduced latency and better reliability. The application is published under the GPLv2 license, the same license as the Linux kernel, to promote more widespread adoption.

VPN Glossary of Terms

Full Glossary for all the terms related to VPN (Virtual Private Networks).

SSTP VPN Protocol

The Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) was developed by Microsoft specifically as a Windows operating system protocol to enable protected remote access to client devices and servers. The “Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol Service” is integrated as a standard service in all currently supported versions of Microsoft operating systems. This service supports SSTP Virtual Private Network (VPN) connections to remote networked devices. SSTP is available for installation on Linux, Mac, Android, and Linux systems relatively effortlessly.

PPTP VPN Protocol

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) was developed in the 1990s by a consortium of computing and telecommunications companies that included Microsoft and 3Com. This led to integrating PPTP into the Windows operating system as a standard feature, which drove its universal adoption for Virtual Private Network (VPN) service providers. Details of PPTP implementation are available from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) open standards organization.

OpenVPN VPN Protocol

OpenVPN is an open-source virtual private network (VPN) system that implements techniques to create secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections. It was developed to be compatible with the most commonly used operating systems and offer configuration options that maximize flexibility, including using either Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) communications. The application is published under the GNU General Public License (GPL) to promote more widespread adoption.

L2TP VPN Protocol

The Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) was developed in the 1990s as a successor to Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) by a consortium that included Microsoft and Cisco. The protocol takes features from PPTP and Cisco’s L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding) protocol to resolve some of the PPTP limitations. L2TP is native to both Windows and macOS operating systems. Details of original L2TP implementation are available from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) open standards organization. A later version of this protocol, L2TPv3, has been developed to enhance the encapsulation process and security improvements.

Encryption and Hashing Explained

Encryption is a technique of encoding data so that only authorized persons can access the information it holds. This can be messages sent between a sender and recipient, data stored in a shared area, or personal information stored locally. Any third party intercepting, eavesdropping, or otherwise attempting to access the encoded data cannot decipher its contents.

Onion Routing Explained

Onion routing was initially developed in the mid-1990s at the US Naval Research Laboratory and further developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). This technique was patented by the Navy in 1998, the patent document providing interesting background information to the original concept.

Onion routing is the term used to describe a method of applying anonymity to network messages by wrapping each message in distinct layers of protection to hide the routing of the messages between a client device and a destination device. The messages are encapsulated in layers of encryption analogous to the layers of an onion, hence its name.

TOR Explained

The Onion Router (Tor) was conceived to implement onion routing using free and open-source software that would be available for anyone to use. Onion routing is a method of applying anonymity to network messages by wrapping each message in layers of protection to hide the routing of the messages between a client device and a destination device. Tor provides the means to implement this anonymized message routing.